Type 2 Diabetic: symptoms diagnosis complications and treatment
Type II Diabetes differs from Type I Diabetes. In Type II Diabetes, people produce insulin and their pancreas either does not produce enough insulin or cannot use it efficiently.
What factors can put a person at risk to developing Type II Diabetes?
There are 54 million people who have prediabetes and that puts them at high risk for developing Type II Diabetes. One of those factors involve obesity; most people live a sedentary lifestyle with a diet high in fat and calories. Other factors include family history of diabetes, thyroid disease, or other endocrine disorders. Type II Diabetes is also very common among African-Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians.
What are some of the symptoms?
A person may start experiencing excessive thirst, hunger, urination, and even sweating. There is some numbness present in the extremities and recurrent infections. There will be slow wound healing, especially on the feet. However, it depends on the individual as some patients exhibit little to no symptoms.
What is the Diagnosis?
A fasting blood glucose test can be performed in which the levels of the glucose are evaluated. If there is a plasma glucose level of 126mg/dl or higher on more than one occasion that is an indicator of Type II Diabetes. Pre-diabetes can be diagnosed by a fasting plasma glucose of 100mg/dl. A good way to monitor the patient in the long run is by using a HgbA1C test.
What are some of the possible complications?
Some of the following are possible complications that a person living with Type II Diabetes can experience. There could be a diabetic coma in which keto acidosis builds up Ketone from excessive AA deamination. Other complications include arteriosclerosis, blindness (number one cause of acquired blindness, kidney disease, foot ulcers, numbness/tingling in the extremities, skin changes and musculoskeletal problems.
What are some of the treatments?
A good balanced diet along with exercise is one way to start. As one of the causes that could lead to Type II Diabetes is an unhealthy diet, it is important that the person makes the necessary changes to help control the diabetes. It is also important that the person monitor themselves and include complementary and alternative therapies. Some drug therapy might need to be included if diet and exercise alone do not help with the symptoms.
What kind of diet should be followed?
It is important that the person does not allow their blood sugar levels to drop and a good way to prevent that is to eat at least 4-6 small meals through out the day. It is also very important that the choices being made are high in nutrients, for example, choosing whole grain foods over processed foods. It is important to limit dairy consumption, choosing skim or 2% products over whole is a better option. Eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables is preferable to eat raw fruit and vegetables as they contain more of their nutrients in this state. Incorporate legumes such as kidney beans, green beans, and pinto beans. When it comes to meat it is best to chose lean cuts and remove the skin and fat from chicken and turkey. It is important to make sure that the necessary amount of Omega 3 nutrients are being taken. Eating fish 2-3 times a week such as salmon is a good way to make sure that is being met. However, not everyone eats fish and another way of obtaining such fatty acids and the Omega 3 nutrients is through olive oil, flax seeds, primrose, and fish oil. Consume plenty of raw unsalted nuts such as almonds. When it comes to beverages it is important to drink plenty of water and if soda is to be taken it is important to be diet soda. It is not always easy to make such drastic changes and even though it is preferable to cut all greasy and fried food, it is not necessary but it is important to decrease the amount consumed. If the person must fry their then it is recommended that canola oil be used. Also, a decrease in the consumption of high calorie snacks is recommended. The caloric requirements of the individual can be determined with the Harris Benedict Equation.
655+9.6(weight in kg)+1.9(height in cm)-4.7(age)
66+13.8(weight in kg)+5(height in cm)-6.8(age)
Most importantly, the patient must watch their portion sizes, even the healthy foods that can lead to weight gain.
What exercises are recommended?
A comprehensive physical activity program includes three kinds of activities; aerobic training, strength training and flexibility training. Any type of exercises should be cleared with the patients doctor to make sure that the patient is able to handle any vigorous activity. Exercising daily is highly recommended with the wear of proper shoes. It is also important to keep in mind that extreme heat or cold should be avoided and feet should be checked daily after exercise. If glucose control is poor it is important to suspend exercise.
Self monitoring is a must. The patient should have a home glucose monitoring system. This will allow the patient recognize anything that might be helping or hurting the control of their glucose levels. This might include having to adjust the person’s diet and exercise routine. An oral hypoglycemic agent can be used if necessary.